A calligrapher writes with light to keep tradition alive | NOVA



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Outfitted with a light-weight and a digital camera, Karim Jabbari hopes his work can function a hyperlink between conservative conventional calligraphy and our augmented actuality.

Mild calligraphy in Australia. Picture courtest of Karim Jabbari

Karim Jabbari nonetheless remembers how painful it was to stroll down the road along with his household as a toddler and see his neighbors flip away. “Nobody was prepared to speak to us in public,” he says. Jabbari’s father was a political prisoner, an activist and “public enemy” of the dictatorship that then dominated Tunisia. His household was below strict police surveillance, and anybody seen speaking to them was instantly suspect as properly.

Ten-year-old Jabbari, lonely and lacking his father, regarded for different methods to fill his time. What he discovered was his father’s trove of 400-year-old spiritual texts, inherited from an ancestor who had been a famend scholar of Islam. The books had been written in an previous type of North African calligraphy often called Maghrebi script. “It’s an artwork kind that speaks to your soul, even if you happen to don’t perceive the message,” he says. “I noticed the hassle of those folks spending a lot time, writing a thousand pages by hand. I noticed the lengthy nights; I noticed my father, his smile.”

Earlier than lengthy, he was obsessed, copying what he noticed within the books time and again till the arcs and features settled into his muscular tissues. That obsession solely grew as soon as he left his hometown of Kasserine to go to boarding college, and his new ability attracted associates—the one factor he’d by no means had.

Right now, Jabbari, now 42, is a full-time artist based mostly in Canada and the U.S., utilizing murals, graffiti, and specialised expertise to convey conventional Arabic calligraphy to a world viewers. He worries {that a} craft that prizes meditative focus and prolonged coaching will probably be misplaced in an period so centered on agility and pace. His work, he hopes, can function a type of bridge, “a hyperlink between conservative conventional calligraphy and our augmented actuality.”

Karim Jabbari makes use of long-exposure pictures to seize phrases written with handheld lights. Picture courtesy of Karim Jabbari

Calligraphy—and calligraphers—have resisted new applied sciences for hundreds of years. For starters, Arabic and its sibling, Persian, used non-Latin alphabets that made them tough to adapt to be used in printing expertise developed within the West, says Behrooz Parhami, an engineer who has studied how Arabic and Persian scripts have advanced alongside expertise. Bodily typefaces constructed for Persian and Arabic’s linked letters are extra fragile, liable to chipping and cracking. And in the event that they aren’t completely made, white areas seem between letters that shouldn’t be there.

The scripts additionally included letters with parts stacked on prime of neighboring letters, which was unimaginable to recreate utilizing the separate blocks of moveable kind. They usually various in peak and width way more than Latin characters, that means that the frequent printing follow of adjusting typefaces to make letters about the identical dimension would render phrases illegible. That “can be disastrous,” Parhami says. “It will be very tough to learn.”

It due to this fact is smart that in Persia and the Arab world, phrases merely remained handwritten for hundreds of years longer than in Europe, Parhami says. The printing press unfold shortly throughout Western Europe within the 1460s and 70s, however it might be one other 250 years earlier than the Ottomans, who dominated a lot of the Muslim world, allowed the opening of a print store. In Persia, it might be practically 400 years earlier than printing grew to become commonplace. And in modern-day Turkey, authorities finally resolved the typeface difficulty within the Twenties by altering that nation’s script from Arabic-based to Latin-based.

Karim Jabbari’s father’s books. Picture Courtesy of Karim Jabbari

Nonetheless, Parhami attributes this delay not simply to the technical challenges but in addition to the hallowed position of the written phrase in these societies. Within the Arab world, calligraphy supplied an intimate connection to God by way of handwritten copying of the Quran and different spiritual texts. Within the area that now largely constitutes Iran, the associated Persian script (which differs by 4 letters) grew particularly elaborate, pushed partly by a wealthy poetry custom, making the thought of mechanization—and the modifications to writing that may include it—much less interesting. Jabbari’s personal connection to his ancestors’ books have helped him perceive this rigidity, he says. Arabic calligraphy’s historic hyperlink with the Quran makes it a sacred kind, he says. It was revered for hundreds of years “and when the printers come, all of that’s going to be dumped? That’s onerous.”

Though he empathizes, he’s additionally pissed off to see that very same resistance to alter in trendy Arabic calligraphy’s small, considerably insular neighborhood, which has typically been reluctant to embrace improvements like trendy fonts, computer-assisted publishing, and social media. Some conventional calligraphers have advised him he doesn’t know the “actual craft” as a result of he was by no means capable of finding a mentor to formally educate him Maghrebi script.  

“You could be a lovely, superb, well-known, conventional calligraphy artist, however your artwork isn’t talking to the youthful generations,” he says. Refusing to attempt new issues or embrace new expertise leaves younger folks out, he argues, and places your complete custom in danger. “‘Your artwork is dying with you,’ I mentioned to them. I’ve nothing however respect for you, however I’m taking calligraphy to the streets.”

Though Jabbari additionally paints murals that incorporate written parts, “taking calligraphy to the streets” normally means mild portray: a mixture of long-exposure pictures and completely calibrated actions of a handheld mild that captures the loops and swirls of Maghrebi Arabic in skinny air. In 2011, after Jabbari’s uncle was shot and killed together with 28 different younger males through the starting of the Arab Spring, he returned to Kasserine to just do such a efficiency piece. “I wished to jot down his identify in mild portray, the identical place the place he died,” he says. After he completed honoring his uncle, he gave different households within the space the chance to do the identical, permitting them to jot down their family members’ names in house—a fleeting memorial mounted on movie.

Mild calligraphy is a difficult medium. “It is advisable know the bounds of the digital camera, what house it’s overlaying,” he says. “You could have all of that house to discover, so you find yourself utilizing your physique as reference: making a line at chest stage, or one at hip stage.” In follow, that appears one thing like a mixture of dance, meditation, and craft. 

Jabbari has collaborated with dancers and musicians; he as soon as carried out within the background of a symphony orchestra in Abu Dhabi; and he builds yoga into his mild calligraphy workshops. He not too long ago employed two software program builders to create a program that tasks his actions in brief near-real-time loops onto skyscrapers, a type of ephemeral graffiti.

Mild calligraphy by Karim Jabbari. Picture Credit score: Husam AlSayed

Since Jabbari arrived in Canada at 20 years previous, calligraphy has develop into an essential method for him to carry onto his tradition and id. “I strongly consider that if you happen to don’t know your historical past, nobody will respect you,” he says. “How will you clarify to somebody who you might be, the place you come from, if you happen to don’t know that?”

Calligraphy has taught him that “we’re the sum of all of the data our ancestors transmitted to 1 one other,” he says. That’s how the artwork of calligraphy has been handed down—from grasp to scholar, who then turns into the following grasp—and likewise what calligraphy was for: recording historical past and knowledge to be shared with the following technology.

Jabbari hopes his work will encourage the traditionalists to check out one thing new and the modernists to recollect the worth of custom, reminding them what writing will be: a type of escape, an journey in reminiscence. “The issue is, we’re not writing anymore,” he says. “It’s lovely to evolve, however if you happen to lose the connection along with your roots, you get misplaced.”

In 2013, Karim Jabbari and a gaggle of youngsters from his hometown of Kasserine, Tunisia, labored for over a month to rework a 750-foot-long jail wall into a large “calligraffiti” mural as a part of a mission known as In the direction of the Mild. Picture courtesy of Karim Jabbari

A couple of months after his efficiency on the website of his uncle’s demise, Jabbari returned on the invitation of Tunisia’s newly shaped authorities to the jail the place his father was held towards the tip of his 13-year sentence. Jabbari and a workforce of younger males from town, one of many nation’s poorest, labored for 45 days overlaying its outer wall with an unlimited calligraphy mural, the longest in North Africa. The piece, which quotes a verse by the Tunisian poet Chebbi, reminds readers that “life doesn’t await those that are asleep.” It struck him as good for the second when so many Arab societies had been rejecting their dictators.

In the course of the Arab Spring, “I noticed the start of a brand new motion,” he says. In Tunisia, the revolution sparked a renewed curiosity in “calligraffiti,” which melds conventional calligraphy with a extra trendy, street-smart “graffiti” fashion. “That is one thing actually lovely,” he says. “These are people who find themselves pleased with their language. They know what it means to them, as a part of their historical past and heritage, and so they’re utilizing it.”

‘Law & Order’ reboot continues with tradition : NPR


The unique collection, which debuted in 1990, leaned closely on present information tales. The brand new present does the identical. Its debut episode facilities on the crimes of a TV persona harking back to Invoice Cosby.



TERRY GROSS, HOST:

That is FRESH AIR. The NBC drama collection “Regulation & Order” premiered in 1990 and was televised till 2010, spawning a number of spinoff collection alongside the best way. However this week, the unique “Regulation & Order” resumes after a 12-year hiatus. It is a continuation, not a reboot. Our TV critic David Bianculli has this have a look at the present’s historical past and influence, in addition to the contents of this new incarnation. Here is his evaluation.

(SOUNDBITE OF “LAW AND ORDER” SOUND EFFECT)

DAVID BIANCULLI, BYLINE: That sound, which has signaled a transition between scenes on NBC’s “Regulation & Order” and all its many spinoffs for many years, has turn into one of the vital recognizable sounds on tv. That is principally as a result of it appears to have been round endlessly, and in TV historical past phrases, it nearly has. The unique “Regulation & Order” collection began in 1990, nearly a full decade earlier than the premiers of “The West Wing” and “The Sopranos.” Sequence creator Dick Wolf, who had labored as a producer on “Miami Vice,” launched “Regulation & Order” as a drama collection that, in essence, was two collection in a single. The legislation portion was a cop present, exhibiting how the police solved the crime and arrested the prime suspect. And the order half was the courtroom drama, exhibiting how the prosecutors constructed their case towards the accused and argued it at trial.

The idea for “Regulation & Order” wasn’t authentic. The identical fundamental construction was used within the ABC drama collection “Arrest And Trial” approach again in 1963, starring Ben Gazzara because the cop and Chuck Connors because the protection legal professional. However the concept was one and allowed “Regulation & Order” over its 20 years to cycle by means of a number of forged adjustments with out lacking a beat. What remained fixed all through was the construction of the present, the on-location capturing in New York and the usage of out there Broadway actors as visitor stars. If you happen to had been a stage actor in New York from 1990 to 2010 and did not have a credit score on “Regulation & Order” in your resume, you wanted a brand new agent.

When “Regulation & Order” closed down 12 years in the past, its common forged members included Anthony Anderson, later of “Black-ish,” as Detective Kevin Bernard and Sam Waterston, later of “The Newsroom,” as Assistant District Legal professional Jack McCoy. They’re each again for this 2022 model, teamed with new characters and gamers, together with Camryn Manheim. Anderson’s detective, for instance, is now paired with Frank Cosgrove, a white cop performed by Jeffrey Donovan, previously of “Burn Discover” and Season 2 of TV’s “Fargo.” Donovan’s a wonderful actor, however even he cannot promote among the dialogue right here, which is so clunky it is painful. The previous “Regulation & Order” all the time had the repute of getting its crimes and points ripped from the headlines but in addition had the repute of being apparent and stilted with its dealing with of these points. The brand new “Regulation & Order” continues that custom.

Here is a scene wherein Kevin and Frank method a younger Black man on the road to query him and tempers run so excessive that Frank is pulled away by his companion. Instantly afterward, Frank complains about being handled unfairly.

(SOUNDBITE OF TV SHOW, “LAW AND ORDER”)

JEFFREY DONOVAN: (As Frank Cosgrove) Are you kidding me? These younger children – they obtained no respect. They get to say and do no matter they need. It is like a free move.

ANTHONY ANDERSON: (As Kevin Bernard) I am undecided what you imply by that.

DONOVAN: (As Frank Cosgrove) I imply, I am white. He is Black. I say the flawed factor, and my profession is over.

ANDERSON: (As Kevin Bernard) Perhaps.

DONOVAN: (As Frank Cosgrove) Perhaps? Is there one other approach of taking a look at this?

ANDERSON: (As Kevin Bernard) Hey, Frank, you got here at him scorching, man.

DONOVAN: (As Frank Cosgrove) I confirmed him my badge, and I mentioned, the way you doing? How’s that coming off scorching? Ought to I’ve provided him a croissant and invited him to tea on the St. Regis?

ANDERSON: (As Kevin Bernard) Perhaps it’s best to have handled him a bit extra well mannered, like a law-abiding citizen minding his personal rattling enterprise.

DONOVAN: (As Frank Cosgrove) Reality is, it is these rattling telephones. They’ve ruined all the things.

ANDERSON: (As Kevin Bernard) OK. That is a method of taking a look at it.

DONOVAN: (As Frank Cosgrove) The opposite?

ANDERSON: (As Kevin Bernard) They maintain us accountable.

BIANCULLI: There is a completely different kind of built-in battle on the Order half of the present. Sam Waterston’s Jack McCoy has been promoted. He’s now the DA in cost, and he oversees a brand new employees of assistants, together with Hugh Dancy as Nolan Worth. And he is upset within the season premiere episode by the best way the police extract a confession from the defendant, however McCoy will not be.

(SOUNDBITE OF TV SHOW, “LAW AND ORDER”)

SAM WATERSTON: (As Jack McCoy) This case is front-page information, Nolan.

HUGH DANCY: (As Nolan Worth) I get it. However with all due respect, that is not related. While you requested me to come back right here, you mentioned, I want somebody who sees the world by means of a unique lens, somebody with the heart to make onerous choices.

WATERSTON: (As Jack McCoy) I bear in mind. I nonetheless really feel that approach. However it’s a authorized confession, Nolan. Cops are allowed to lie.

DANCY: (As Nolan Worth) They’re. However it makes the confession much less dependable, much less moral.

WATERSTON: (As Jack McCoy) No. If it is authorized, it is moral.

BIANCULLI: The case itself, the one they’re prosecuting, is essentially the most incendiary facet of this in any other case typical new model of “Regulation & Order.” The fictional case includes the homicide of a well-liked celeb named Henry King, accused of drugging and raping 40 ladies. It is apparent that this episode is ripped from headlines tied to Invoice Cosby. And that is noteworthy, if for no different motive, as a result of when the unique “Regulation & Order” premiered on NBC, two of the community’s prime 5 TV reveals had been from Cosby, “The Cosby Present” and “A Totally different World.” Invoice Cosby dominated NBC then and was answerable for its reversal of fortune from third place to first. At this time, as “Regulation & Order” returns for Season 21, Cosby is getting used as nameless inspiration for simply one other TV plot.

And this new “Regulation & Order,” make no mistake, is simply one other TV version of the identical acquainted present, one other cog in a really dependable machine. From its memorable theme music by Mike Publish to the fast tempo of it’s-just-the-facts-ma’am plot factors, this new “Regulation & Order” season is rather like all of the others. That makes it a watchable present, not an amazing one. However it’s nonetheless not a criticism. At a time when all the printed networks are churning out extra recreation and actuality reveals than scripted collection in primetime, the return of the old school “Regulation & Order” is a step ahead, in addition to a nod backward.

GROSS: David Bianculli is a professor of tv research at Rowan College in New Jersey. “Regulation & Order” premiers tomorrow on NBC. Tomorrow on FRESH AIR, it’s possible you’ll be squeamish about bugs, however might people dwell in a world with out them? Bugs play important roles in pollinating crops we eat, breaking down waste in forest soil and forming the bottom of a meals chain for different animals. Our visitor might be environmental author Oliver Milman, who explores the troubling decline in insect populations in his new ebook, “The Insect Disaster.” I hope you will be part of us.

(SOUNDBITE OF MIKE POST’S “LAW AND ORDER – MAIN THEME”)

GROSS: Our technical director and engineer is Audrey Bentham, with further engineering right this moment from Al Banks. Our interviews and critiques are produced and edited by Amy Salit, Phyllis Myers, Sam Briger, Lauren Krenzel, Heidi Saman, Therese Madden, Ann Marie Baldonado, Thea Chaloner, Seth Kelley and Kayla Lattimore. Our digital media producer is Molly Seavy-Nesper. I am Terry Gross.

(SOUNDBITE OF MIKE POST’S “LAW AND ORDER – MAIN THEME”)

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