Whole-genome sequencing reveals new secrets about killer fungus — ScienceDaily

New analysis from the College of Exeter experiences the biggest ever whole-genome sequencing venture for the doubtless deadly yeast an infection Candida glabrata from hospitals throughout Scotland.

Candida glabrata is a kind of yeast that may trigger illness in people. It mostly impacts the urinary tract, genitals, mouth, and the bloodstream. If it isn’t caught, these infections can change into lethal. It additionally has a really excessive resistance to sure antifungal medication, so understanding why resistance happens is essential to understanding how one can deal with it successfully.

The brand new analysis, revealed in Genetics, used samples from eight hospitals in Scotland to sequence the genome of Candida glabrata. This led to the invention of quite a lot of new data on the species. This contains data on how they reproduce and the genetic range. It additionally discovered that genes that make it extra prone to be infectious have a bonus for survival, and the drug-resistance genes usually evolve inside sufferers.

The invention of this data provides scientists a bonus with regards to treating candida glabrata. A greater understanding of the genes concerned permits researchers to focus their work in ways in which weren’t attainable earlier than. It additionally helps assist understanding on how the pathogen spreads, which is necessary to figuring out infections.

Dr Rhys Farrer, one of many Principal Investigators on the MRC Centre for Medical Mycology on the College of Exeter, mentioned: “Our research sheds new gentle on the genetic range of Candida glabrata. We have now demonstrated that this lethal human fungal pathogen is being unfold between continents, most likely by people, and recombining to type new populations, which is probably going contributing to its excessive virulence and rising drug resistance.”

The analysis was funded by the Medical Analysis Council and the Wellcome Belief.

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After Paris Attacks, CIA Head Reignites Surveillance Debate | United States of Secrets | FRONTLINE

Simply three days after the bloody assault in Paris, America’s prime intelligence official took to a podium and urged that current leaks about categorized surveillance packages had been partially accountable.

“Unauthorized disclosures” have led to “a whole lot of hand-wringing over the federal government’s function within the effort to attempt to uncover these terrorists,” mentioned CIA director John Brennan in remarks on Monday. “There have been some coverage and authorized and different actions … that make our capacity collectively, internationally, to seek out these terrorists way more difficult, and I do hope that that is going to be a get up name.”

Brennan didn’t point out Edward Snowden by identify. However the paperwork the previous NSA contractor leaked to journalists in 2013 revealed  simply how a lot knowledge the U.S. collects on foreigners and Individuals alike.  He uncovered two categorized packages — Part 215 of the Patriot Act, which collects phone data in bulk, and Part 702, which authorizes spying on non-U.S. residents.

U.S. officers have mentioned that the disclosures have endangered nationwide safety by encouraging terrorists to make use of encrypted messaging programs and software program to hide their identities on-line, some extent Brennan underscored on Monday.

“There was a major improve within the operational safety of a variety of these operatives and the terrorist networks as they’ve gone to high school on what it’s they should do to maintain their actions hid from the authorities,” Brennan mentioned in remarks on the Heart for Strategic and Worldwide Research. “As I discussed, there are a whole lot of technological capabilities which are out there proper now that make it exceptionally troublesome each technically in addition to legally for intelligence safety providers to have the perception they should uncover it.”

Brennan’s remarks reignited a long-running debate on the stability between civil liberties and nationwide safety, which gained momentum worldwide after Snowden revealed the lengthy attain of U.S. surveillance.

However privateness advocates be aware that terrorists have been conscious lengthy earlier than Snowden that the U.S. authorities has the power to trace them. And there’s no indication to this point that the Paris assaults, which killed 129, may have been stopped by different methods, safety specialists mentioned. The Islamic State has claimed duty, however it’s nonetheless not but identified how the assaults had been deliberate and the way they may have been disrupted.

“I don’t suppose it’s honest,” mentioned Steven Aftergood, director of the Federation of American Scientists Mission on Authorities Secrecy, of Brennan’s remarks. “It’s untimely at finest and it might be totally unsuitable. And it’s not clear to what extent surveillance would or may or did make a distinction.” He added: “It’s not as if folks wanted Snowden with a purpose to understand that governments, together with the U.S., collect intelligence or are trying to anticipate and defeat assaults on their nation. That’s a given.”

Since Snowden’s disclosures in 2013, the U.S. authorities has defended the packages, arguing that they’ve disrupted terror assaults. A presidential evaluate board set as much as consider each packages discovered privateness issues with every program, and examined their effectiveness. It famous that Part 702, which permits the gathering of web and cellphone knowledge for non-U.S. individuals, “has instantly enabled the thwarting of particular terrorist assaults, aimed toward america and at different international locations.”

One of many incidents officers have pointed to is the 2008 assaults in Mumbai, through which gunmen killed 166 folks. A report by FRONTLINE and ProPublica discovered that although intelligence officers had been capable of monitor a key plotter within the assault, the data wasn’t intently analyzed in time to stop the bloodbath.

The identical board discovered “minimal worth” in Part 215, this system that gathers bulk phone knowledge on U.S. residents. “We now have not recognized a single occasion involving a menace to america through which this system made a concrete distinction within the final result of a counterterrorism investigation,” it mentioned. “Furthermore, we’re conscious of no occasion through which this system instantly contributed to the invention of a beforehand unknown terrorist plot or the disruption of a terrorist assault.”

Within the meantime, the disclosures have led to new oversight and a few modifications to the packages. In two weeks, a provision of the brand new USA Freedom Act takes impact that stops the NSA from gathering and storing American cellphone knowledge in bulk.

That knowledge will nonetheless be retained, however now it will likely be stored by the cellphone corporations as a substitute, shared with the federal government solely upon authorization. Information for non-U.S. residents will nonetheless be collected by the federal government.

A girl walks previous a banner displayed in assist of former US spy Edward Snowden in Hong Kong on June 18, 2013. (Philippe Lopez/AFP/Getty Pictures)