Canada: 169 potential graves found at former residential school | Indigenous Rights News


Warning: The story beneath incorporates particulars of residential faculties which may be upsetting. Canada’s Indian Residential College Survivors and Household Disaster Line is offered 24 hours a day at 1-866-925-4419.

One other First Nation neighborhood in Canada has uncovered potential graves at a former “residential faculty”, because the nation continues to grapple with the dimensions of the “horror” that occurred on the assimilation establishments that Indigenous youngsters had been compelled to attend for many years.

Kapawe’no First Nation, about 370km (230 miles) north of Edmonton, Alberta, stated on Tuesday that it discovered “169 anomalies … related to graves” in a search of the grounds of the previous Grouard Mission residential faculty.

The search was carried out utilizing ground-penetrating radar and drones, the neighborhood stated.

“The grief of discovering our stolen youngsters has opened contemporary wounds as we bear in mind the horror and devastation our individuals felt when our youngsters had been forcibly faraway from their households and communities to establishments referred to as residential faculties,” stated Chief Sydney Halcrow.

“We will now start our collective therapeutic and honour the lives of those youngsters to allow them to lastly relaxation in peace.”

Canada compelled greater than 150,000 First Nations, Inuit, and Metis youngsters to attend residential faculties between the late 1800s and Nineties. The youngsters had been stripped of their languages and tradition, separated from siblings, and subjected to psychological, bodily and sexual abuse. Hundreds are believed to have died whereas attending the establishments, which had been run by varied church buildings, most notably the Roman Catholic Church.

A map of former residential schools in Canada

A federal fee of inquiry into the establishments, referred to as the Reality and Reconciliation Fee (TRC), concluded in 2015 that Canada’s residential faculty system amounted to “cultural genocide”.

A whole lot of unmarked graves have been found at former residential faculty websites throughout Canada since Could, when Tk’emlups te Secwepemc First Nation introduced it had uncovered 215 unmarked graves on the former Kamloops Indian Residential College.

That discovery fuelled widespread requires justice and accountability for the victims and survivors of the establishments, in addition to calls for that the Canadian authorities launch all information pertaining to the services.

In late January, Williams Lake First Nation within the western province of British Columbia stated preliminary outcomes of a search at St Joseph Mission Residential College uncovered 93 “reflections” that had been believed to be unmarked gravesites.

Willie Sellars, the chief of Williams Lake First Nation, stated at the moment that “a truthful account have to be advised of the previous college students’ residential faculty expertise” earlier than any reconciliation can happen in Canada.

Stuffed animals are left at the site of a former residential school in CanadaKids’s footwear and teddy bears line the grounds of the previous Kamloops Indian Residential College, after the stays of 215 youngsters had been discovered [File: Jennifer Gauthier/Reuters]

The Grouard Mission residential faculty, also referred to as St Bernard’s, was run by the Roman Catholic Church between 1894 and 1957, in keeping with the Nationwide Centre for Reality and Reconciliation, a analysis centre on the College of Manitoba. It was closed in 1961.

“The varsity enrolled a lot of Metis college students: by 1949, they accounted for half of the scholars in residence,” the centre says on its web site.

An Indigenous delegation is predicted to journey from Canada to Rome on the finish of March to satisfy with Pope Francis to debate the Roman Catholic Church’s position within the Canadian residential faculties system.

In its remaining report in 2015, the Reality and Reconciliation Fee known as on the pope to challenge an apology to residential faculty survivors, their households and communities “for the Roman Catholic Church’s position within the religious, cultural, emotional, bodily, and sexual abuse of First Nations, Inuit, and Metis youngsters in Catholic-run residential faculties”.

“We name for that apology to be just like the 2010 apology issued to Irish victims of abuse and to happen inside one yr of the issuing of this Report and to be delivered by the Pope in Canada,” the fee stated.

In June, Pope Francis expressed “ache” on the discovery of the unmarked graves at Kamloops Indian Residential College, however stopped in need of providing the apology long-sought by residential faculty survivors.

An Indigenous bioethicist on CRISPR and decolonizing DNA | NOVA



Physique + MindPhysique & Mind

Gene-editing know-how is progressing quicker than our moral conversations about how we must always use it. Krystal Tsosie thinks that’s an issue.

Geneticist-bioethicist Krystal Tsosie. Picture courtesy of Krystal Tsosie.

When scientists got down to sequence your complete human genome in 1990, it was thought of an endeavor on par with splitting the atom or touchdown on the Moon. They completed in 2003, two years forward of schedule. Inside one other 10 years, researchers had harnessed a organic software referred to as CRISPR-Cas9 to “edit” human genes. And simply three years after that, Chinese language scientists deployed the identical gene-editing software in an experimental therapy for lung most cancers.

Our understanding of human DNA has progressed at breakneck pace, revolutionizing forensics, revealing our ancestral connections, and launching the sphere of medical genetics. And with the appearance of CRISPR, extremely focused gene enhancing has turn out to be doable. The implications are super.

However because the science races ahead, once-hypothetical moral considerations are shortly changing into actuality. In 2018, Chinese language researcher He Jiankui shocked the world when he introduced the beginning of dual ladies from embryos that had been gene edited in an try and make them proof against HIV. Although He and two of his colleagues had been broadly condemned and sentenced to jail, different “rogue” scientists might nonetheless comply with go well with. 

“That ought to not have occurred; it simply shouldn’t have,” says geneticist-bioethicist Krystal Tsosie of Vanderbilt College. Like so many scientists, Tsosie advocates for a pause on germline enhancing—making genetic modifications which are handed on to an individual’s offspring—not less than lengthy sufficient for society to ask itself some important questions. What are we aiming for after we search to edit life? What makes a human being “regular,” “wholesome,” or “excellent,” and who will get to determine what which means? 

NOVA spoke with Tsosie, who’s an enrolled member of the Navajo Nation, about how Indigenous tradition, gene enhancing, and bioethics converge, and what it’d take to #DecolonizeDNA.

Alissa Greenberg: Have been you all the time curious about science and genetics? What drew you to this space of examine?

Krystal Tsosie: If you’re Navajo specifically, there aren’t that many Indigenous individuals or Native Individuals within the schooling pipeline and better schooling. So of the upper levels that had been inspired from individuals like myself rising up, both you had been inspired to turn out to be a health care provider, a lawyer, an engineer, or an educator. And I used to be on the route of changing into a doctor. I simply cherished understanding what it was that triggered illness.

I used to be truly beginning off within the most cancers biology monitor, however there was a cut-off date the place I noticed if I needed to pursue a profession in most cancers biology, that I’d encounter the dilemma of, how do I innovate applied sciences that might not profit my individuals? As a result of even when in my lifetime I had been to develop one thing that might assist any individual with most cancers, chances are high that…it would not be utilized in a rural tribal clinic setting. Like, how can I take care of the guilt of present process a number of years of schooling and analysis and never have it profit my individuals?

So I returned to Arizona State College and did a grasp’s in bioethics. It was an attention-grabbing time as a result of they had been coping with the aftereffects of the Havasupai case and that fiasco.

Havasu Falls, on the Havasupai Indian Reservation, close to the Grand Canyon in Arizona. The Havasupai title means “individuals of the blue-green water.” Picture Credit score: Frank Kehren, Flickr

AG: Are you able to say extra about that case and what made it a fiasco?

KT: Within the early 2000s an ASU researcher was doing work associated to Kind 2 diabetes markers within the Havasupai Nation. The Havasupai individuals are geographically remoted on the base of the Grand Canyon. They usually collected blood samples from people and ended up utilizing them to review different issues in addition to diabetes, corresponding to schizophrenia, which is a charged situation, and likewise began publishing their origins—tales that did not fairly match their very own cultural tales as a result of they themselves consider that they originated within the base of the Grand Canyon. 

This was together with numerous different discussions that had been ongoing in world Indigenous communities. As of now, as an example, the Navajo Nation has a moratorium on genetic analysis, as do plenty of tribes within the U.S. I am unsure in case you’re aware of UNDRIP, which is the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples; it was a response to simply the variety of large-scale variety genome initiatives that had been ongoing in Indigenous communities, significantly in Central and South America. Over 600-plus tribal nations all over the world went to the United Nations to ask them to cease these genome variety initiatives.

Specifically, the Nationwide Genographic Challenge was denounced as a “vampire venture” as a result of they’d helicopter in, accumulate blood samples, promise medical interventions that might assist these communities, however they hadn’t actually returned. So sort of like vampires within the evening coming and taking the blood—that’s the place that imagery comes from. 

And in case you take a look at, as an example, the 1000 Genomes Tasks or the Human Genome Range Challenge, these are two main large-scale variety initiatives which have made their data brazenly accessible to researchers worldwide. It was an effort to kind of democratize analysis, however what has occurred is that plenty of main firms have utilized that data to develop business platforms corresponding to AncestryDNA. There’s a big curiosity in accumulating Indigenous biomarkers, and there is a revenue element there. The actual fact is that non-Indigenous entities are deriving income from Indigenous biomarkers, and at this level that hasn’t actually translated to medical advantages to the those who have truly contributed that data.

There is a degree of experience that has wanted to be developed regionally for Indigenous peoples to make these choices for themselves, to self-determine. And we’re beginning to get to that time as a result of now we’ve extra Indigenous scientists. However there nonetheless aren’t that many people. 

One factor I all the time say is that Indigenous peoples usually are not anti-science; we’re anti-exploitation. Science, as a lot as we prefer to idealize it, shouldn’t be purely goal.

AG: In your Twitter bio you employ the phrase “Decolonize DNA.” I am curious what that phrase means to you. Is that associated?

KT: To decolonize DNA shouldn’t be anti-science, and it is not a rewriting of the basics of DNA. One factor I all the time say is that Indigenous peoples usually are not anti-science; we’re anti-exploitation. Science, as a lot as we prefer to idealize it, shouldn’t be purely goal. There’s subjectivity within the sorts of questions that we select to pursue, the sorts of questions our businesses fund. After which additionally the choices that we make when it comes to who to incorporate and who to not embrace in research additionally creates subjectivity. And likewise how these outcomes are interpreted. As a result of if they do not correctly have in mind all of the historic societal elements at play, then we’re ignoring some key, probably colonial elements that relate to well being.

AG: Do you have got an instance that may illustrate that concept?

KT: Not every part is genetically mediated that causes illness. But it surely’s straightforward to suppose in these phrases as a result of that is most likely the simplest bit of data to gather that pertains to illness—the organic elements. However illness is advanced. There’s gene-environmental interactions which are at play. We all know that socioeconomic elements play an enormous function in illness.

Alcoholism is one thing that is actually charged and is an instance. There have been over 230-plus publications in PubMed alone that attempt to look to see why Native Individuals are supposedly genetically at higher danger for alcoholism. However then that completely ignores the historical past of hurt that has been perpetrated upon us, the shortage of psychological well being and preventative-health measures, the shortage of social packages for therapy of alcoholism. That is an ideal instance of how skipping instantly towards DNA as a trigger for every part is probably dangerous and will result in exacerbating damaging stereotypes of a individuals.

CRISPR-Cas9 is a software that lets scientists lower and insert small items of DNA at exact areas alongside a DNA strand. | Picture Credit score: Ernesto del Aguila III, Nationwide Human Genome Analysis Institute, NIH

Kind 2 diabetes has been closely studied in Indigenous peoples within the southwest and likewise in American Samoa. And an enormous portion of this narrative for an extended interval of genetic historical past has been that we’re genetically predisposed to this illness. However this illness didn’t exist in our communities till very lately. So there’s these different elements like a compelled weight loss plan that was imposed upon us; forcible change to our methods of dwelling and our methods of offering meals for ourselves; a elimination of our lands that does not enable us to pursue our conventional types of agriculture; an imposition of a westernized type of weight loss plan. These are like precise contributors of well being which are being overly conflated with genetics, when in actuality there may very well be different social, cultural, colonial elements at play.

AG: How would you apply this concept of decolonizing DNA to CRISPR?

KT: We now have to be actually cautious that we’re not overly simplifying our narratives associated to evolutionary adaptation and mutations. Like, the time period “mutation” is one which’s not likely nicely understood. A mutation is supposed to be a change within the genetic code that differs from regular. However then what precisely is regular? The time period that plenty of us use is “polymorphism,” which is a typical variation that is existent in not less than 1% of the inhabitants. And even that is problematic as a result of proper now, even with our efforts to diversify genome research, over 81% of members in genome-wide affiliation research are of European descent. After we’re speaking about genome variety, a mutation or a polymorphism may be an evolutionary adaptation for a sure group of individuals in response to sure environmental circumstances, and it may very well be protecting in some circumstances. We do not have sufficient details about whether or not or not it’s adaptive in numerous circumstances for various populations.

That’s what I need to ask people who find themselves such advocates of utilizing this know-how in dwelling human beings. What’s the excellent? Is there one?

I am additionally actually involved about utilizing germline enhancing as an answer for outlining what constitutes a standard human being. These evaluating judgments ignore the rights of these with disabilities. It presents incapacity as one thing that have to be corrected, when in actuality, hundreds of thousands of individuals with a spectrum of circumstances stay wholesome, fulfilling lives. That is one thing that I actually am proud to see within the autism spectrum neighborhood, a cognizance that what we name “regular” ought to most likely be modified. I additionally love and admire Down syndrome sufferers who’re actually advocating for his or her rights to stay with their very own company and autonomy as adults. Like, what is that this excellent that individuals are on the lookout for? That’s what I need to ask people who find themselves such advocates of utilizing this know-how in dwelling human beings. What’s the excellent? Is there one?

AG: You write ceaselessly about biocolonialism. Is that this what you imply?

KT: I take advantage of it within the context of economic exploitation of biomarkers. To different Indigenous research students, biocolonialism can even imply the forcible introduction of genetic variation that negatively impacts us. So, as an example, this may very well be introducing illnesses that did not actually exist in our communities. It might additionally imply altering our reproductive dynamics via genocidal acts.

AG: Are you able to clarify that a little bit extra?

KT: Mainly numerous inhabitants genetics is statistical. There’s numerous assumptions at play there; one of many assumptions is that people meet randomly. However issues like genocide are non-random occasions. There are some issues which are recessive gene mutations that may be prevalent in Indigenous communities and are most likely extra so now, post-genocidal occasions, simply because an enormous portion of the inhabitants is not reproducing. I am attempting to not say simply “useless,” however…yeah. Lifeless.

Researchers decoding the cassava genome. Scientists have used CRISPR-Cas9 to edit the genes of agricultural crops together with tomatoes, citrus fruit, cacao, and extra. Picture Credit score: 2013CIAT/NeilPalmer, Flickr

AG: So how will we do higher? I learn considered one of your papers through which you and your coauthors are speaking about ideas for moral engagement in genomic analysis. Are you able to speak a little bit about these?

You need to have the ability to acknowledge that the members concerned in research have data and experiences which are informative and beneficial and subsequently ought to be included within the analysis course of—significantly if there are dangers and advantages which are going to be affecting them and never exterior communities.

And that is only a means of stating that if you’re going to be accumulating biomarkers that not solely determine a person, but in addition affect the neighborhood, then you definitely actually ought to be rethinking these moral questions—not simply on the particular person degree, however on the group degree. In Western ethics, numerous the questions of whether or not the advantages outweigh the dangers are centered on the person. However in actuality, particularly when it is associated to DNA—and DNA is one thing that is inherited and shared by members of an analogous group—then actually that query ought to be utilized to everybody in that neighborhood.

AG: You speak concerning the significance of cultural consistency in moral genomics apply as nicely. What does that time period imply? Why is it essential?

KT: First, we’ve to acknowledge that there are literally thousands of Indigenous communities all over the world and each has their very own cultural ethic. So what one neighborhood may determine is inside their tradition ethic is probably not the identical as a unique neighborhood. And so after we work with Indigenous communities, one of many issues we need to guarantee shouldn’t be solely is that this analysis useful to them, and probably outweighs the dangers—but in addition, are we guaranteeing that the analysis is a query that they are culturally snug with, that is not going to impede or infringe on present cultural beliefs?

I will give the instance of migration tales. Many tribes alongside the Pacific Coast may be extra amenable towards taking a look at inhabitants evolution involving their neighborhood, as a result of they have already got a creation story that states that they got here from peoples that traveled from a distance. So they could look to genetics as a doable technique of bridging their cultural data with this genetic data. Whereas with different teams, just like the Havasupai, who consider they originated on the base of the Grand Canyon, these different narratives may be culturally conflicting.

* There isn’t any approach to ethically procure a full image of worldwide migration based mostly on DNA with out the specific consent of Indigenous communities….What we expect we learn about world migration from DNA continues to be knowledgeable by archaeological, cultural, and linguistic information which may be misinterpreted or siloed inside Western constructs and biases of historical past—and should itself be topic to scrutiny for pilfering of sacred websites and data which have commemorated that means for Indigenous communities and descendants right now. 

As a lot as I discover these questions associated to new rising applied sciences to be fascinating, we nonetheless have the basic problem of simply giving healthcare to individuals! I want we might acknowledge that extra.

AG: What does it imply to you as an Indigenous geneticist that the foundations of this space of examine, and of STEM normally, are so profoundly white and male? How do you steadiness giving this technological energy to the individuals and holding it for individuals who have been educated about it, when there’s elementary inequalities round who will get to be educated and what they study?

KT: This notion of prioritizing knowledge is a colonial idea. In our communities, till very lately, we did not have Ph.D.s. We revered our elders and the knowledge that they conferred to us, which was derived from their cultural teachings and likewise their lived experiences. And we will not low cost that. We won’t simply come right into a neighborhood and say, “Oh, I’ve this Ph.D.” That is meaningless. And that is gonna require a humbling of the patriarchy that’s in science at the moment.

And simply as a definite assertion, I actually want that as a lot cash as we’re pushing on precision medication initiatives on this nation, I want we might simply allocate a few of that cash to preventative well being. There was an editorial cartoon in considered one of our tribal newspapers. It is a skeleton ready in an Indian Well being Providers clinic. It simply says “Ready room, IHS.” And it is true. Like, how can we speak concerning the subsequent advances in precision medication after we do not even have sufficient clinics in our tribal communities and additionally in our Black neighborhoods? If there’s something that COVID has proven us, it is that there are big inequities in healthcare. These are big structural obstacles that exist referring to inequitable entry to healthcare clinics and preventative well being. As a lot as I discover these questions associated to new rising applied sciences to be fascinating, we nonetheless have the basic problem of simply giving healthcare to individuals! I want we might acknowledge that extra.

AG: What would it not take to make use of applied sciences like CRISPR ethically in your opinion?

KT: Personally, I feel CRISPR could be a highly effective software because it exists in lots of laboratories. However there’s an enormous hole between the speed of technological advances and likewise how we focus on the moral implication of these advances. We have to pause, is absolutely my viewpoint. We have to actually ask ourselves: What are the steps at which this know-how could be exploited? After which how will we create pointers to forestall that exploitation?

What I’m particularly speaking about is germline enhancing. There’s simply a lot we do not perceive concerning the genome. There’s considerations about off-target results. That principally implies that the CRISPR system might affect different genetic places than what we initially supposed. That speaks to the truth that there are genetic repeats all through the genome that may very well be very related, that we do not fairly have full details about.

There are additionally what’s referred to as “bystander results,” through which we do not totally perceive how the physique’s regular base enhancing restore mechanisms act, as a result of they do not all the time act in an ideal means; they’re very error-prone. They’ll introduce mutations that we do not intend. They’ll introduce a number of mutations on the web site that possibly we supposed however may need a unique impact. We do not know the impact on how these cell-repair mechanisms may have an effect on the protein’s general operate and the way that change to the protein may affect organic pathways, that are very advanced. After which there’s the straightforward incontrovertible fact that, even when it impacts the one offspring, there’s different future downstream modifications and results that future offspring need to deal with.

We haven’t actually spent the moral time discussing these questions. And at this cut-off date, we nonetheless know little or no concerning the genome. For example, people who find themselves of non-European descent, what their genomes may appear like, or about gene-environment interactions. Till we’ve the total image of what this might probably appear like in a stay human being, I feel we must always pause. 

AG: What do you suppose is lacking from the conversations or moral debates? Is there the rest that you just really feel like individuals aren’t speaking about that they need to be speaking about?

KT: What this implies for communities which are traditionally disregarded of those conversations. What this implies for people who’ve disabilities. What it means socially and culturally as a society after we make a typical of “regular.” 

It does lend itself to a eugenics dialogue. It isn’t a slippery slope argument as a result of that argument is sort of a fallacy. There are middleman steps that get you from level A to level Z, however we’ve to account for all these middleman steps.

AG: The “slippery slope argument” that you just most likely hear essentially the most on this context is designer infants. What do you make of the individuals who say if we preserve going the way in which we’re going, that is going to turn out to be commonplace?

KT: That is why I advocate for a pause, anticipating these conditions beforehand in order that we are able to put laws in place to forestall these conditions.

AG: So that is the essential factor, that if we’re considerate sufficient about this, then it does not need to be a slippery slope? We will get some traction, principally?

KT: Precisely.

*Tsosie added later by way of e-mail 

This interview has been edited for size and readability.



751 Indigenous Children Graves Found At Canada School


A minimum of 751 unmarked graves have been discovered at a former boarding faculty for Indigenous youngsters in Canada, officers stated Thursday.

The brutal discovery happened on the website of the Marieval Indian Residential Faculty in Saskatchewan, a Catholic faculty that opened in 1899 and closed in 1997.

“This was a criminal offense in opposition to humanity, an assault on First Nations folks… The one crime we ever dedicated as youngsters was being born Indigenous,” Chief Bobby Cameron of the Federation of Sovereign Indigenous First Nations stated in a press convention.

Lower than a month previous to Thursday’s announcement, a mass grave containing the our bodies of 215 Indigenous youngsters was discovered at one other such faculty, the now-defunct Kamloops Indian Residential Faculty in British Columbia.

Each establishments have been a part of a darkish chapter in Canadian historical past, through which Indigenous youngsters have been faraway from their households and despatched to colleges run by the federal government and church with a view to strip them of their tradition and drive them to assimilate. The colleges have been rife with bodily and sexual abuse, and hundreds of kids died, however the precise numbers and causes of loss of life will possible by no means be totally identified.

Cameron stated many extra of those former colleges shall be investigated, and so they count on many extra graves shall be discovered. “We are going to discover extra our bodies, and we won’t cease till we discover all of our kids,” he stated.

“Canada has unearthed the findings of genocide,” Cameron stated. “We had focus camps right here … They have been referred to as Indian residential colleges. Canada shall be referred to as a nation who tried to exterminate the First Nations, and now we’ve proof.”

Cowessess First Nation Chief Cadmus Delorme stated the graves have been as soon as marked, however the Roman Catholic Church, which ran the varsity, is believed to have eliminated the headstones within the Sixties. Delorme referred to as on the pope to apologize for the church’s function in operating the residential colleges.

“The pope must apologize for what has occurred,” Delorme stated. “An apology is one stage of many within the therapeutic journey.”

Earlier this month, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau additionally referred to as on Pope Francis to apologize for the church’s accountability within the deaths of the Indigenous youngsters. “As a Catholic, I’m deeply disenchanted by the place that the Catholic Church has taken now and over the previous a few years,” Trudeau stated.

Days after Trudeau’s feedback, the pontiff expressed unhappiness over the invention of the mass grave in however didn’t supply an apology. “I be part of with the Canadian bishops and all the Catholic Church in Canada in expressing my closeness to the Canadian folks traumatized by the surprising information,” Francis stated in public remarks.

On Thursday, Trudeau stated he was “terribly saddened” that the our bodies of much more Indigenous youngsters had been discovered.

“No little one ought to have ever been taken away from their households and communities, and robbed of their language, tradition, and id. No little one ought to have spent their treasured youth subjected to horrible loneliness and abuse,” Trudeau stated. “No little one ought to have spent their final moments in a spot the place they lived in worry, by no means to see their family members once more. And no households ought to have been robbed of the laughter and pleasure of their youngsters enjoying, and the delight of watching them develop of their neighborhood.”

In case you want assist, the 24-hour Indian Residential Faculty Survivors Disaster Line might be reached at 1-866-925-4419.

Canada ‘Sixties Scoop’: Indigenous survivors map out their stories


1000’s of indigenous youngsters in Canada had been forcibly faraway from their households between the Nineteen Fifties and Eighties, in what is named the “Sixties Scoop”.

They had been put into non-indigenous properties by welfare businesses, in an try and assimilate them into mainstream tradition.

Now survivors are mapping out their tales and discovering solace in connecting with others.

Video by Dan Lytwyn

Indigenous communities model restorative justice


Indigenous communities are a mannequin for restorative justice practices that may serve colleges, writes Helen Thomas, the Workplace of Indian Schooling’s skilled studying specialist for the Arizona Division of Schooling. On this commentary, Thomas shares easy methods to combine restorative justice as a “holistic framework for not solely repairing, however nurturing and sustaining relationships.”