Amid Ukraine crisis, China’s ‘Zero COVID’ weighs on global growth | Russia-Ukraine crisis


As struggle in Ukraine and sanctions on Russia threaten international financial development, the way forward for China’s “dynamic zero COVID” coverage is below scrutiny as a consider provide chain disruptions and rising inflation.

Whereas the remainder of the world is opening borders and studying to stay with COVID-19, China’s elimination technique – which includes utilizing mass testing and tracing, border controls and snap lockdowns to comprise the virus – has weighed on the post-pandemic financial restoration at dwelling and abroad.

The restrictions have slowed home spending throughout China, set off a mind drain in Hong Kong, and triggered export disruptions which were blamed for fuelling rising inflation worldwide.

In January, IMF Managing Director Kristalina Georgieva mentioned Beijing’s pandemic technique more and more appeared like “extra of a burden” to the financial system.

“At a time of heightened market volatility, any doable information on one other extra critical COVID outbreak in China will stir market reactions and add additional to commodity value volatility,” mentioned Tommy Wu, lead economist at Oxford Economics in Hong Kong.

GlobalData has forecast a 4.6 p.c international inflation charge in 2022, in contrast with 3.6 p.c in 2021, revising its inflation estimates upward for a lot of of China’s main export locations, together with the US, Germany, the Netherlands, and Vietnam.

The disaster in Ukraine has exacerbated pre-existing international inflation fears, with oil costs surging above $100 a barrel for the primary time since 2014.

China has declined to sentence Russia, the world’s second-largest pure fuel producer and third-largest oil producer, over its invasion of Ukraine, and as an alternative, has referred to as on all events to “train restraint”.

Inflationary pressures

“China supply-chain disruptions have pushed up enter prices for companies throughout sectors who’ve needed to move the upper price of manufacturing on to shoppers thereby driving up international good costs,” Gargi Rao, a GlobalData financial analysis analyst, advised Al Jazeera, itemizing the US, Hong Kong, Japan, Vietnam, South Korea, and India as among the many economies most susceptible to China’s provide chain disruptions.

“To tame these inflationary pressures, central banks in main economies are prone to hike coverage charges. Nonetheless, even after climbing coverage charges, inflationary strain might persist because the rise in value stage is especially pushed by provide shortages.”

Whereas the financial impression of zero COVID pales compared to the potential fallout of the struggle in Ukraine, the unpredictability and suddenness of disruptions can have pricey, albeit short-lived penalties.

A lockdown within the southern Chinese language metropolis of Baise final month interpreted the transportation of aluminium ingots and uncooked supplies to factories, triggering export delays that despatched costs to a 14-year excessive.

“Provide chain interruptions in China don’t discriminate by business or geographic area,” Trivium China analyst Taylor Loeb advised Al Jazeera.

“They’re unpredictable and have occurred everywhere in the nation. The uncertainty will proceed – not across the coverage per se, however round the truth that the ‘when’ and ‘the place’ of outbreaks, and the lockdowns that observe them, are unpredictable.”

Apparently involved concerning the financial fallout, Beijing has in latest months experimented with extra focused lockdowns which have centered on particular venues or neighbourhoods fairly than complete cities.

“The impression of lockdowns in China on provide chains will depend upon how the lockdowns are carried out,” Tianlei Huang, a analysis fellow on the Peterson Institute for Worldwide Economics in Washington, DC, advised Al Jazeera.

Huang cited Shanghai – which locked down particular buildings and areas fairly than the whole metropolis – as instance of an efficient focused lockdown technique.

“With well-targeted lockdowns, financial exercise interruptions will be minimised,” he mentioned.

Wu of Oxford Economies mentioned a extra focused method would assist “hold manufacturing working as a lot as doable in case of COVID outbreaks.”

Queues of people waiting in a snaking line in Hong Kong to get COVID testsHong Kong is experiencing an explosion in coronavirus infections [File: Joyce Zhou/Reuters]

A latest explosion of instances in Hong Kong has solid additional doubt on the sustainability of a strict “zero COVID” stance. After protecting infections close to zero for a lot of the pandemic, the worldwide monetary centre is reporting greater than 30,000 instances and 100 deaths every day. Below the town’s most draconian pandemic restrictions because the pandemic started, companies are dealing with months of compelled closures, grocery store cabinets are being stripped naked, and worldwide expertise is heading for the door.

Regardless of repeated flare-ups in infections, mainland China has reported fewer than 4,700 deaths all through the pandemic, one of many lowest loss of life tolls on the earth.

This week, Zeng Guang, former chief epidemiologist on the Chinese language Centre for Illness Management and Prevention, hinted that Beijing might be reconsidering its “zero COVID” coverage. In a social media publish, Zeng mentioned the coverage “is not going to stay ceaselessly” and that China’s long-term purpose would contain co-existing with the virus.

“Within the close to future, on the proper time, the roadmap for Chinese language-style co-existence with the virus needs to be offered,” mentioned Zeng, expressing hope that Beijing would undertake a reopening coverage “that’s versatile but manageable, one which advantages from China’s whole-of-society system but additionally learns from others’ successes”.

To date, Beijing has but to sign any such change.

Wu Zunyou, chief epidemiologist with the Chinese language Centre for Illness Management and Prevention, final month advised Chinese language state media that the nation wouldn’t modify its coverage in the meanwhile.

Loeb of Trivium China mentioned the financial impact of Beijing’s technique has not been as extreme as many had predicted.

“The sanctions on Russia, and what’s prone to be Russia’s extended isolation from developed economies, are going to trigger long-term ache, notably in vitality and different commodities,” he mentioned. “However for China, if post-Omicron developments proceed, the frequency of provide chain disruptions will solely lower.”

‘Resilient consumer’: Target to invest $5bn to increase retail growth | Business and Economy News


Goal will make investments as much as $5bn this 12 months in bodily shops, remodels, new manufacturers and increasing its on-line fulfilment because the discounter continues to drive gross sales development and differentiate itself from rivals.

The plans, introduced Tuesday at its annual investor assembly held in New York, embody opening 30 new shops — from midsize places in dense suburban areas to small shops in cities like Charleston, South Carolina. It additionally plans to rework 200 of its current shops. The Minneapolis retailer additionally goals to roll out model partnerships, together with opening 250 extra Ulta Magnificence outlets in its shops, with plans to ultimately function 800 outlets.

The strikes come as Goal pushed by means of headwinds — from congested ports to inflation that has been the best in 40 years — to ship strong outcomes for the three-month interval that included the essential vacation buying season.

“We proceed to see a resilient client,” Goal CEO Brian Cornell informed analysts on the assembly.

Fourth-quarter revenue rose practically 12 %, whereas gross sales elevated 9.4 %, and the Minneapolis retailer launched an upbeat income outlook for 2022.

Goal was one of many few retailers that prospered through the COVID-19 outbreak. As bodily shops promoting non-essential items closed briefly or completely through the depths of the pandemic, homebound folks turned to Goal’s on-line providers for every thing from groceries to cleansing provides. However in current months, as total demand has surged, retailers are going through rising prices for every thing from labour to delivery as provide chain backups hit firms worldwide. Goal, due to its measurement, was in a position to constitution vessels and fill its cabinets forward of the vacation delivery crunch.

Goal, nevertheless, was not unscathed and value pressures from 2021 are carrying over into this 12 months.

Gross margins fell from 26.8 % through the fourth quarter of 2020 to 25.7 % in the newest quarter. And Goal mentioned Tuesday that margins within the first quarter will likely be decrease than final 12 months.

That didn’t faze traders who drove shares up greater than 11 %, or $21.99 to $221.76 in mid-afternoon buying and selling.

Goal’s benefit competing towards rivals may be present in its shops, which have develop into the equal of Amazon’s “fulfilment facilities”. Aisles have been filling with consumers once more because the pandemic wanes and behind the scenes, on-line orders are taken, items are packed, and shipped or ready for curbside pickup at Goal shops which are vital to satisfying digital gross sales, which rose 9.2 % within the quarter.

Digital gross sales development reached practically $13bn in 2021, and greater than 95 % of Goal’s fourth-quarter gross sales had been fulfilled at its shops.

The corporate can also be including “sortation” centres past Minneapolis, with 5 extra amenities working throughout Dallas, Houston, and Austin, Texas in addition to Atlanta and Philadelphia by spring. One other is deliberate to open later this 12 months. Sortation centres set up on-line orders packed by native shops for quick neighbourhood deliveries.

“We’re getting extra environment friendly, extra productive — and that’s flowing by means of to the underside line,” Cornell mentioned on CNBC.

Web earnings for the quarter that ended January 29 reached $1.54bn or $3.21 per share. Adjusted earnings per share for the newest quarter was $3.19, simply topping the $2.85 that trade analysts had been on the lookout for, in line with FactSet. It additionally topped final 12 months’s fourth-quarter revenue of $1.38bn or $2.73 per share.

Income was $31bn in contrast with Wall Avenue projections of $31.32bn.

The corporate registered an 8.9 % enhance in gross sales at shops opened at the very least a 12 months.

Goal expects low- to mid-single-digit income development for the present fiscal 12 months.

That comes because the retailer Goal goals to recruit and maintain on to its staff with increased pay. The corporate mentioned Monday that it’s going to supply minimal wages that vary from $15 to $24 an hour, with the best pay going to hires in essentially the most aggressive markets. It presently pays a common beginning wage of $15 an hour.

The corporate has performed nicely with its partnerships with such manufacturers as Levi’s and Disney. Final 12 months, it started rolling out Ulta Magnificence outlets in its shops as a part of a take care of the wonder retailer. Goal executives mentioned the Ulta outlets have twice the productiveness in contrast with the remainder of the shop.

Goal’s earnings report got here as Kohl’s reported fiscal fourth-quarter earnings that beat analysts’ expectations however income fell wanting estimates, in line with analysts polled by FactSet. However Kohl’s delivered an annual revenue outlook that was above analysts’ estimates.

Tiny tire particles inhibit growth of organisms in freshwater, coastal estuaries, studies find — ScienceDaily


Small particles from tires inhibited the expansion and brought on hostile behavioral adjustments in organisms present in freshwater and coastal estuary ecosystems, two new analysis papers from Oregon State College scientists discovered.

The findings are a part of a continued effort by scientists to unravel the impacts of microplastics and nanoplastics on aquatic ecosystems and aquatic organisms. Tire particles are probably the most widespread microplastic varieties in aquatic ecosystems.

Harper, Brander and several other different graduate college students and a post-doctoral students of their labs, together with Brittany Cunningham, Samreen Siddiqui, just lately printed two papers on the tire particle analysis in Chemosphere and the Journal of Hazardous Supplies.

“The give attention to microplastics and now nanoplastics remains to be comparatively new,” mentioned Stacey Harper, an Oregon State professor who research the environmental well being and security impacts of nanomaterials and led the analysis on tire particles in freshwater organisms. “We’re now on the level of creating coverage selections that we do not have the science for. That is why we’re scrambling to produce that science.”

California is on the forefront of this problem, with a statewide microplastics technique adopted final week. Related efforts on the federal degree and probably amongst different states are anticipated, mentioned Susanne Brander, an assistant professor and ecotoxicologist at Oregon State who led the coastal research on tire particles and was additionally co-chair for one of many a number of science advisory groups that helped develop the California technique.

Tire particles are composed of supplies together with artificial rubber, filling brokers, oils and different components. The particles themselves and chemical compounds they leach, often called leachate, could have detrimental results on aquatic organisms they arrive in touch with, the researchers notice.

The researchers cite research that present through the lifetime of an vehicle tire about 30% of its tread erodes and enters the atmosphere. In addition they cite a current research that estimated greater than 1.5 million metric tons of tire put on particles movement into the atmosphere annually in america.

“I really feel specifically with tire particles that everybody is measuring how a lot is on the market, however only a few teams are measuring what impression they’re having,” Brander mentioned. “That is actually the hole we have been making an attempt to patch up right here.”

To do this, the Oregon State scientists uncovered two mannequin organisms in each the freshwater and estuary ecosystems to totally different concentrations of micro and nano tire particles and to leachate created by the breakdown of the tire particles. Microparticles are fragments lower than 5 millimeters (0.20 inches) in size. Nanoparticles are so small that aren’t seen to the bare eye or underneath a easy microscope.

Within the estuary ecosystem paper, led by post-doctoral scholar Samreen Siddiqui, the mannequin organisms have been Inland Silverside and mysid shrimp. Findings by the researchers included:

  • Each organisms, after being uncovered, had considerably altered swimming behaviors at concentrations detected within the atmosphere, reminiscent of elevated freezing, adjustments in positioning and whole distance moved, which the researchers notice may result in an elevated threat of predation and challenges for the organisms to search out meals within the wild.
  • Each organisms had diminished development relying on the extent of publicity to micro tire particles, fish uncovered to nano tire particles additionally had diminished development.
  • Leachates affected conduct however didn’t impression development in both organism.

These findings led the researchers to conclude that even at present environmental ranges of tire-related air pollution, that are anticipated to extend, aquatic ecosystems could also be experiencing damaging impacts.

Within the freshwater ecosystem paper, led by graduare scholar Brittany Cunningham, embryonic zebrafish and the crustacean Daphnia magna have been the mannequin organisms. Among the many findings:

  • Each organisms skilled mortality and developmental abnormalities resulting from tire particle and leachate exposures.
  • Tire particle leachate was the primary driver of toxicity for each organisms.
  • Publicity to nano tire particles enhanced toxicity compared to leachate alone.

These findings led the researchers to conclude that whereas toxicity from tire particles was noticed in each organisms, general sensitivity to tire particles differed. They imagine that it is very important perceive these variations to determine ranges at which these pollution turn into poisonous. This information, they notice, is essential for the creation of threat assessments, which inform coverage selections.

The researchers additionally talked about a number of methods to restrict tire particles from coming into the atmosphere. These embrace putting in rain gardens on the perimeters of roads to seize tire particles, putting in particle seize units on vehicles, creating tires that last more and investing in inexperienced infrastructure, reminiscent of public transit, that enables individuals to drive much less.

The analysis is supported by a Nationwide Science Basis Rising Convergence Analysis Massive Concept grant. The grant helps the Oregon State-based Pacific Northwest Consortium of Plastics, which Harper and Brander co-lead.

Harper and Brander are based mostly within the Oregon State Faculty of Agricultural Sciences. Different co-authors of the papers embrace Bryan Harper, Sarah Hutton, John Dickens and Emily Pedersen.

A trispecific antibody targeting HER2 and T cells inhibits breast cancer growth via CD4 cells


  • Waldman, A. D., Fritz, J. M. & Lenardo, M. J. A information to most cancers immunotherapy: from T cell fundamental science to scientific follow. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 20, 651–668 (2020).

    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Goebeler, M. E. & Bargou, R. C. T cell-engaging therapies—BiTEs and past. Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. 17, 418–434 (2020).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Porter, D. L., Levine, B. L., Kalos, M., Bagg, A. & June, C. H. Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells in power lymphoid leukemia. N. Engl. J. Med. 365, 725–733 (2011).

    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Sharma, P. & Allison, J. P. The way forward for immune checkpoint remedy. Science 348, 56–61 (2015).

    ADS 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Bhoj, V. G. et al. Persistence of long-lived plasma cells and humoral immunity in people responding to CD19-directed CAR T-cell remedy. Blood 128, 360–370 (2016).

    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Leach, D. R., Krummel, M. F. & Allison, J. P. Enhancement of antitumor immunity by CTLA-4 blockade. Science 271, 1734–1736 (1996).

    ADS 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Vesely, M. D., Kershaw, M. H., Schreiber, R. D. & Smyth, M. J. Pure innate and adaptive immunity to most cancers. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 29, 235–271 (2011).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Trabolsi, A., Arumov, A. & Schatz, J. H. T cell-activating bispecific antibodies in most cancers remedy. J. Immunol. 203, 585–592 (2019).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Wu, L. et al. Trispecific antibodies improve the therapeutic efficacy of tumor-directed T cells via T cell receptor co-stimulation. Nat. Most cancers 1, 86–98 (2020).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Steinmetz, A. et al. CODV-Ig, a common bispecific tetravalent and multifunctional immunoglobulin format for medical purposes. MAbs 8, 867–878 (2016).

    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Berchuck, A. et al. Overexpression of HER-2/neu is related to poor survival in superior epithelial ovarian most cancers. Most cancers Res. 50, 4087–4091 (1990).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Burstein, H. J. The distinctive nature of HER2-positive breast cancers. N. Engl. J. Med. 353, 1652–1654 (2005).

    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • Gravalos, C. & Jimeno, A. HER2 in gastric most cancers: a brand new prognostic issue and a novel therapeutic goal. Ann. Oncol. 19, 1523–1529 (2008).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Kim, E. Ok., Kim, Ok. A., Lee, C. Y. & Shim, H. S. The frequency and scientific affect of HER2 alterations in lung adenocarcinoma. PLoS ONE 12, e0171280 (2017).

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Pollock, N. I. & Grandis, J. R. HER2 as a therapeutic goal in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Clin. Most cancers Res. 21, 526–533 (2015).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Santin, A. D. et al. Amplification of c-erbB2 oncogene: a serious prognostic indicator in uterine serous papillary carcinoma. Most cancers 104, 1391–1397 (2005).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Siena, S. et al. Focusing on the human epidermal development issue receptor 2 (HER2) oncogene in colorectal most cancers. Ann. Oncol. 29, 1108–1119 (2018).

    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Slamon, D. J. et al. Human breast most cancers: correlation of relapse and survival with amplification of the HER-2/neu oncogene. Science 235, 177–182 (1987).

    ADS 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Yoon, H. H. et al. Affiliation of HER2/ErbB2 expression and gene amplification with pathologic options and prognosis in esophageal adenocarcinomas. Clin. Most cancers Res. 18, 546–554 (2012).

    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Hicks, D. G. & Kulkarni, S. HER2+ breast most cancers: assessment of biologic relevance and optimum use of diagnostic instruments. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 129, 263–273 (2008).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Pohlmann, P. R., Mayer, I. A. & Mernaugh, R. Resistance to trastuzumab in breast most cancers. Clin. Most cancers Res. 15, 7479–7491 (2009).

    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Shak, S. Overview of the trastuzumab (herceptin) anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody scientific program in HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast most cancers. Herceptin Multinational Investigator Research Group. Semin. Oncol. 26, 71–77 (1999).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Wang, J. & Xu, B. Focused therapeutic choices and future views for HER2-positive breast most cancers. Sign Transduct. Goal Ther. 4, 34 (2019).

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Laux, I. et al. Response variations between human CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells throughout CD28 costimulation: implications for immune cell-based therapies and research associated to the enlargement of double-positive T-cells throughout getting older. Clin. Immunol. 96, 187–197 (2000).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Brudno, J. N. & Kochenderfer, J. N. Toxicities of chimeric antigen receptor T cells: recognition and administration. Blood 127, 3321–3330 (2016).

    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Kroschinsky, F. et al. New medication, new toxicities: extreme uncomfortable side effects of recent focused and immunotherapy of most cancers and their administration. Crit. Care 21, 89 (2017).

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Saber, H., Del Valle, P., Ricks, T. Ok. & Leighton, J. Ok. An FDA oncology evaluation of CD3 bispecific constructs and first-in-human dose choice. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 90, 144–152 (2017).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Baselga, J. et al. Section II research of weekly intravenous trastuzumab (herceptin) in sufferers with HER2/neu-overexpressing metastatic breast most cancers. Semin. Oncol. 26, 78–83 (1999).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Zuch de Zafra, C. L. et al. Focusing on a number of myeloma with AMG 424, a novel anti-CD38/CD3 bispecific T-cell-recruiting antibody optimized for cytotoxicity and cytokine launch. Clin. Most cancers Res. 25, 3921–3933 (2019).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Harbeck, N. et al. HER2 dimerization inhibitor pertuzumab—mode of motion and scientific information in breast most cancers. Breast Care (Basel) 8, 49–55 (2013).

    Google Scholar 

  • Niculescu-Duvaz, I. Trastuzumab emtansine, an antibody-drug conjugate for the therapy of HER2+ metastatic breast most cancers. Curr. Opin. Mol. Ther. 12, 350–360 (2010).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Bang, Y. J. et al. First-in-human section 1 research of margetuximab (MGAH22), an Fc-modified chimeric monoclonal antibody, in sufferers with HER2-positive superior strong tumors. Ann. Oncol. 28, 855–861 (2017).

    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Jones, Ok. L. & Buzdar, A. U. Evolving novel anti-HER2 methods. Lancet Oncol. 10, 1179–1187 (2009).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Mignot, F. et al. Concurrent administration of anti-HER2 remedy and radiotherapy: systematic assessment. Radiother. Oncol. 124, 190–199 (2017).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Vu, T. & Claret, F. X. Trastuzumab: up to date mechanisms of motion and resistance in breast most cancers. Entrance. Oncol. 2, 62 (2012).

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Buie, L. W., Pecoraro, J. J., Horvat, T. Z. & Daley, R. J. Blinatumomab: a first-in-class bispecific T-cell engager for precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Ann. Pharmacother. 49, 1057–1067 (2015).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Tran, B. et al. 609O Outcomes from a section I research of AMG 160, a half-life prolonged (HLE), PSMA-targeted, bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE®) immune remedy for metastatic castration-resistant prostate most cancers (mCRPC). Ann. Oncol. 31, s507 (2020).

    Google Scholar 

  • Deegen, P. et al. The PSMA-targeting half-life prolonged BiTE remedy AMG 160 has potent antitumor exercise in preclinical fashions of metastatic castration-resistant prostate most cancers. Clin. Most cancers Res. 27, 2928–2937 (2021).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Raghu, G. et al. SAR156597 in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a section 2 placebo-controlled research (DRI11772). Eur. Respir. J. 52, 1801130 (2018).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Service provider, A. M. et al. An environment friendly path to human bispecific IgG. Nat. Biotechnol. 16, 677–681 (1998).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Xu, L. et al. Trispecific broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies mediate potent SHIV safety in macaques. Science 358, 85–90 (2017).

    ADS 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Alegre, M. L. et al. A non-activating “humanized” anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody retains immunosuppressive properties in vivo. Transplantation 57, 1537–1543 (1994).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, Ok. B. & Ellis, S. A. Standardisation of a process for quantifying floor antigens by oblique immunofluorescence. J. Immunol. Strategies 228, 29–36 (1999).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar