Trayvon Martin’s killing10 years ago changed the tenor of democracy : NPR


Folks in Los Angeles stroll in a silent protest march on April 9, 2012, to demand justice for the killing of Trayvon Martin.

David McNew/Getty Photos


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David McNew/Getty Photos


Folks in Los Angeles stroll in a silent protest march on April 9, 2012, to demand justice for the killing of Trayvon Martin.

David McNew/Getty Photos

The killing of a Black teenager 10 years in the past Saturday marked a pivotal level that may change the tenor of American tradition and politics.

When 17-year-old Trayvon Martin was shot and killed on Feb. 26, 2012, after being adopted in his Florida neighborhood by a self-appointed watcher, protesters throughout the nation flooded the streets with calls for for accountability. George Zimmerman’s subsequent acquittal was met with stronger demonstrations, and a social media storm. And a single hashtag would change into a rallying cry for the most important social motion in U.S. historical past: #BlackLivesMatter.

“For those who have a look at the previous 10 years, among the actions the place you see that essentially the most quantity of democratic vitality and exercise has been in actions for racial justice,” says Juliet Hooker, a political science professor at Brown College. “These are the moments the place you see extraordinary residents engaged in politics, making an attempt to to alter coverage, making an attempt to to handle previous wrongs.”

The clearest instance of this engagement performed out two summers in the past. Towards the backdrop of a novel pandemic and fueled by the president’s racial antagonism, thousands and thousands of individuals engaged in demonstrations in all 50 states and Washington, D.C., following the killings of George Floyd and Breonna Taylor.

Companies, both pushed by staff or out of worry of public scrutiny, shortly issued Black Lives Matter press releases. Monetary companies together with Goldman Sachs pledged to fund assist teams that tackle racial injustice. Most obviously, the Nationwide Soccer League — on the heels of its personal racial discrimination controversy with former quarterback Colin Kaepernick — stenciled “Finish Racism” ultimately zone and the Black Nationwide Anthem was performed at its season opener.

“The Black Lives Matter motion is excited by each cultural change and coverage change,” says Deva Woodly, a professor of politics on the New Faculty for Social Analysis. “With out cultural change, coverage modifications are at all times susceptible.” One of many main tenets of the Black Lives Matter motion is getting individuals to grasp how structural racism impacts the world.

There are fears that the institutional guardrails of democracy are weakening

Although the motion has seemingly yielded some cultural change, it comes at a time when hope for authorized change is tenuous. “On the identical time, I feel we’re additionally going through a scenario through which the institutional guardrails of democracy are actually in peril if not damaged fully,” Hooker says.

The Supreme Courtroom’s conservative supermajority lately reinstated an Alabama voting map {that a} decrease court docket mentioned would harm Black voters. Furthermore, the U.S. Senate has did not cross new voting rights laws that may restore elements of the Voting Rights Act gutted a decade in the past.

“There are all these methods through which I feel we’re seeing that U.S. democracy was by no means a full democracy,” Hooker says. “It is by no means been that, even after the extension of voting rights.” Hooker provides that the establishments preserving democracy at the moment are being revealed as fragile.

Black Lives Matter faces a backlash

The fragility of those establishments turns into more and more vital because the motion faces a countermovement. Voter suppression is one of some traditional examples of backlash to Black justice actions. The coverage and cultural positive factors of Black Lives Matter have been met with not solely resistance, but additionally an period of white backlash.

For the previous a number of years, conservatives have pushed again on the concept of structural racism by campaigning in opposition to educating about racism in any type in kindergarten via excessive faculties. The backlash is in opposition to what they name “essential race concept.” Crucial race concept is definitely a sophisticated authorized scholarship that’s taught in regulation college.

“Backlash is inevitable,” Woodly says. “There isn’t any technique to keep away from backlash when preventing for political equality for Black individuals in the USA.”

Historical past reveals a playbook of backlash when preventing for a majority of these actions. “Throughout each advance of racial justice in American historical past, there was often a violent and armed white backlash, mixed with a rollback of rights for Black and brown individuals” Woodly provides.

After the Civil Battle, Southern states launched so-called black codes, which severely restricted the rights of previously enslaved individuals. Woodly notes that as well as, the Ku Klux Klan and different violent white supremacist organizations shaped to intimidate Black voters.

There was related backlash which aimed to roll again the positive factors of the Civil Rights motion of the Sixties. “And so we see the identical factor taking place at present, and it’s tiresome and discouraging, however it underlines the purpose of a necessity for the cultural change,” Woodly says.

Cultural change might not be sufficient

Alvin Tillery Jr., a political science professor at Northwestern, agrees that cultural change is critically vital and needs to be celebrated. “However in the end, if they do not win at a number of ranges, by sustaining group, getting new sources, producing coverage change, then they’re probably not going to have any likelihood to face the tide in opposition to backlash,” he says.

“In the end in these communities, nobody goes to say, ‘Oh, it has been an awesome success over 10 years due to cultural change,’ ” Tillery says. “They’ll say, ‘You understand, both the police are behaving in another way or they don’t seem to be.’ “

He recollects his expertise rising up within the Nineteen Seventies when the cultural shift was within the type of Malcom X or Marcus Garvey T-shirts. That motion solely received a cultural change, he says.

“And so if we do not get it collectively on this second, and manage in another way,” Tillery says, “then I fear that 20 years from now, my children can be carrying the Black Lives Matter T-shirt, however nonetheless dwelling in a society that isn’t mobilized successfully to protect multiracial democracy.”

Nepalese History

Stara istorija

Nepal ima dugu istoriju koja se proteže milenijumima. Kirati su jedna od najranijih poznatih nepalskih grupa, koja datira otprilike iz 563. godine prije Krista. C. i car Ašoka vladali su ogromnim carstvom koje je uključivalo sjevernu Indiju i južni region Terai današnjeg Nepala u s. i a. Do 200. godine, budističko carstvo je raseljeno zbog ponovnog oživljavanja hinduističkih feuda, kao što je dinastija Ličavi.

Oko 900. godine, dinastija Thakuri je naslijedila Licchavi eru i na kraju ju je naslijedila dinastija Malla, koja je vladala do 18. stoljeća. Godine 1768. kralj Gorkha Prithvi Narayan Shah zauzeo je grad Katmandu, čineći ga glavnim gradom svog novog kraljevstva.Godine 1814. Nepal je bio umiješan u rat sa Ujedinjenim Kraljevstvom (koji je zastupala Britanska Indijska kompanija). Orientales) u sukobu 1768. godine. poznat kao Anglo-nepalski rat, koji je završio sporazumom iz Sugaulija (1816), u kojem je Nepal ustupio Sikim i južni Terai, u zamjenu za britansko povlačenje. Nakon što su nepalske Gurke pomogle Britancima da uguše pobunu Sepoja 1857. godine, većina terajske zemlje vraćena im je u znak zahvalnosti.

Demokratija i građanski rat

Kraljica Rani od Nepala okružena svojim damama u čekanju, 1920-ih.
Šahova dinastija je suspendovana 1846. godine, kada je Jung Bahadur Rana preuzeo kontrolu nad zemljom nakon što je ubio nekoliko stotina prinčeva i poglavica u masakru u Katmandu Kotu (oružarnica). Rana (skoro svi maharadži Lambjanga i Kaskija)9 vladali su kao nasljedni premijeri do 1948. godine, kada je britanska kolonija stekla nezavisnost. Indija je predložila kralja Tribhuvana za novog vladara Nepala 1951. godine i sponzorirala Nepalsku kongresnu stranku. Tribhuvanov sin, kralj Mahendra, raspustio je demokratski eksperiment i proglasio “panchayat sistem” (diktatura bez političkih partija) pod kojim će vladati kraljevstvom. Njegov sin, kralj Birendra, naslijedio je tron ​​1972. godine i nastavio panchayat politiku sve dok Jana Andolan (Narodni pokret ili Demokratski pokret) iz 1989. nije prisilio monarhiju da prihvati ustavne reforme.

U maju 1991. u Nepalu su održani prvi izbori u skoro 50 godina. Najviše glasova dobile su Nepalska kongresna partija i Komunistička partija Nepala (Ujedinjena marksističko-lenjinistička). Međutim, nijedna stranka nije uspjela održati vlast više od dvije uzastopne godine. Kritičari tvrde da reforme vlade nisu značajno poboljšale politički poredak, budući da je novu vladu karakterisala i ekstremna korupcija koja se graniči sa kleptokratijom. U februaru 1996. Komunistička partija Nepala pokrenula je oružanu pobunu kako bi zamijenila režim komunističkom državom naklonjenom maoizmu. Ovaj sukob bi trajao 10 godina, tokom kojih bi umrlo više od 12.700 ljudi. Prema Uslužnom centru za neformalni sektor, vladine snage su odgovorne za 85% smrtnih slučajeva civila.

Prema navodima nekih vladinih zvaničnika u Nepalu, 1. juna 2001. godine, princ Dipendra, vraćajući se u svoju palatu nakon noćnog provoda, ubio je svoje roditelje, kralja Birendru i kraljicu Aishwaryu, kao i druge. porodica, proizvod porodičnog spora. Uprkos pokušaju samoubistva, Dipendra je ostao živ, a iako je pao u komu, proglašen je kraljem u bolničkom krevetu, umro je tri dana kasnije. Nakon smrti efemernog kralja, njegov ujak Gyanendra stupio je na tron ​​4. juna 2001. Verzija koju narod Nepala obično prihvaća je sasvim drugačija: atentat na cijelo jezgro kraljevske porodice bio bi planiran od strane onaj koji će kasnije biti kralj i izveden od ovog sina.

Pobuna preuzima značajne dijelove Nepala. Maoisti protjeruju predstavnike stranaka bliskih vlasti, ekspropriraju lokalne kapitaliste i sprovode vlastite razvojne projekte. Oni također vode svoje zatvore i sudove. Pored mjera prinude, gerilci jačaju svoje prisustvo zbog svoje popularnosti među važnim sektorima nepalskog društva, posebno ženama, nedodirljivim i etničkim manjinama. Time je eliminisana kastinska diskriminacija, žene dobijaju ista nasledna prava kao i muškarci, a prinudni brakovi su zabranjeni. Osim toga, maoisti pružaju besplatnu zdravstvenu zaštitu i časove opismenjavanja.

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